A Nobel prize in Medicine was awarded for the finding that lesions in the walls of blood vessels are the primary cause of atherosclerotic plaques. Clusters of “fat” molecules acting as repair agents form nature’s “plaster casts” against the weakness of blood vessel walls. These sticky molecules are lipoprotein(a). If these deposits continue to develop in the arteries of the heart they lead to heart attack. If they continue to develop in the arteries of the brain they lead to stroke.
Hundreds of investigators found that only a specific type of cholesterol molecule, lipoprotein-(a), or Lp(a) for short, is the primary material that binds to a lesion in the walls of an artery forming plaques. Lp(a) is an ordinary LDL cholesterol molecule with a sticky apo-protein(a) (or apo(a)) attached to the surface. Animals that make their own vitamin C generally do not have the variant Lp(a) cholesterol molecules.
Dr Linus Pauling’s and heart researcher Dr Matthias Rath’s revolutionary concept is that lipoprotein-(a) cholesterol in the blood is an evolutionary adaption for, and a symptom of, low vitamin C.
After crucial experiments, Dr. Pauling believed that the vitamin C/lysine protocol would save lives by: a) Preventing chronic scurvy, b) Strengthening and healing blood vessels, c) Keeping Lp(a) blood levels low and d) Inhibiting the binding of Lp(a) molecules to blood vessel walls.
Pauling/Rath Unified Theory
Can the absence of cardiovascular disease in animals confirm the Pauling/Rath Unified Theory? According to veterinary text books, heart attack, stroke and cardiovascular disease in general — is largely unknown in animals. Dr. Rath points out that if scientists could determine the reason, they would have an important clue to the puzzle.
Irwin Stone introduced Linus Pauling to the benefits of high amounts of vitamin C. Stone wrote, “We can surmise that the production of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) was an early accomplishment of the life process because of its wide distribution in nearly all present-day living organisms. It is produced in comparatively large amounts in the simplest plants and the most complex; it is synthesized in the most primitive animal species as well as in the most highly organized. Except possibly for a few micro-organisms, those species of animals that cannot make their own ascorbic acid are the exceptions and require it in their food if they are to survive. Without it, life cannot exist. Because of its nearly universal presence in both plants and animals we can also assume that its production was well organized before the time when evolving life forms diverged along separate plant and animal lines.” [I. Stone, THE HEALING FACTOR: Vitamin C Against Disease, ’76]
You might wonder, Don’t animals die young? The average life span of the Elephant is 60 years. There are other species (e.g. Giant Tortoises) that can live over 100 years. Why don’t most animals (other than primates, guinea pigs, fruit bats and a few parrots) suffer from heart disease? The reason, according to Linus Pauling:
Most animals produce their own vitamin C in amounts varying between 3,000 mg – 12,000 mg per day adjusted for body weight.
Most animals convert ordinary sugar (sucrose) to vitamin C in their kidneys or their liver. The newly created vitamin enters directly into the animal’s blood stream. Animals also get some vitamin C from their food.
Humans cannot produce a single molecule of vitamin C and must rely entirely on the diet. Tissue levels of ascorbic acid, the technical name for vitamin C, may be the most important difference between the physiology of primates (including humans) and other beings.
It is an important finding that the few animal species that do not produce vitamin C, such as the primates and guinea pigs, do produce the “sticky” Lp(a) molecules.
Pauling recommended that people supplement their diet with vitamin C in amounts hundreds of times higher than the 60 mg amount recommended by dietary authorities in the USA. If animal metabolisms are any guide, Pauling’s recommendations may be too low.
Pauling’s own experiments showed that roughly 1/2 the amount of vitamin C ingested may be lost in the digestive tract or by urinary excretion. [1986 Pauling video on Cancer]
Heart Disease Cure
The great chemist Linus Pauling and Dr. Matthias Rath have led the medical paradigm shift away from vitamins-as-prevention to vitamins-as-therapy. Their efforts have failed to sway most medical doctors. Then in 1991, armed with the knowledge of Lp(a) and the understanding of how Lp(a) binds to our arteries creating plaque, Pauling/Rath invented what they came to believe, was the cure for heart disease.
The Pauling/Rath invention is based on chemistry. The idea is to nullify the binding effect of Lp(a) to the damaged arterial wall.
According to the Pauling/Rath 1994 United States patent, the amino acid lysine (lysine analogs), along with vitamin C and other antioxidants (e.g. Co-Q10, vitamin E and vitamin A), can, in sufficient concentration, inhibit Lp(a) binding to exposed lysine residues. Proline residues are also exposed by lesions in blood vessels. Later experiments showed that proline as well as lysine, with vitamin C, other amino acids and antioxidants, in oral amounts well past what is needed for prevention, becomes a solvent by inhibiting the binding of Lp(a). A binding inhibitor augmented with vitamin C can stop and apparently even reverses some plaque formations. Pauling and Rath even have a second U. S. patent for using these binding inhibitors as solvents to melt atherosclerotic plaques from human organs during organ transplants. The organ is dipped in the Lp(a) Binding Inhibitor solution and the plaques melt away.
Although the Pauling therapy is based on safe substances required for life, it acts like a powerful drug. The mega therapy increases blood concentrations of important substances so as to: Strengthen and heal blood vessels, Lower Lp(a) blood levels and keep Lp(a) levels low, and Inhibit the binding of Lp(a) molecules to the walls of blood vessels.
Pauling/Rath claimed that large megadoses of Lp(a) binding inhibitors taken orally will prevent and may even dissolve existing atherosclerotic plaque build-ups. These levels, apparently achievable in most people at oral doses well beyond what we normally consume, raise blood concentrations to therapeutic levels.
We call high intakes of these substances, esp. vitamin C and lysine, the Pauling therapy. The Pauling therapy treats the root cause and our experience shows it can rapidly reverse advanced heart disease.
Increase Vitamin C intake.
If the Pauling/Rath Unified Theory is correct, then the most likely reason you have heart disease is because your vitamin C intake has been less than optimal. You will want to increase your vitamin C.
Why blockages form:
After investigators determined that Lp(a) causes atherosclerosis, the next question for scientists became: “What causes these “fat” molecules to stick to the artery wall?” The Nobel prize winning answer turned out to be amino acid residues — the so-called Lysine (and Proline) Binding Sites or LBS.
The Lp(a) or “cholesterol” binding sites are really just collagen protein (amino acid) residues that becomes exposed when blood vessels “crack.” These exposed residues attract the Lp(a) molecules creating the plaque.
. . . A very important discovery. . .
What if the sticky Lp(a) molecules could be reduced, or were attracted some place other than the damaged arterial wall?“Knowing that lysyl residues are what causes lipoprotein-(a) to get stuck to the wall of the artery and form plaques, any physical chemist would say at once that the thing to do is prevent that by putting the amino acid lysine in the blood to a greater extent than it is normally.” [Linus Pauling, JON, Aug. ’94]
Pauling/Rath’s invention is to increase the lysine concentration in the blood serum causing Lp(a) to bind with lysine molecules in the blood rendering the Lp(a) inactive.
Today, there are more than 1100 MEDLINE (US National Medical Database) references to Lp(a). These reports confirm the Nobel prize winning research paper of Brown-Goldstein and provide a solid foundation for the Pauling/Rath Unified Theory. The fundamental and now generally recognized scientific fact is that Lp(a) cholesterol molecules bind to blood vessel walls via the Lysine and Proline Binding Sites forming atherosclerotic plaques and occlusive cardiovascular disease.
A corollary is that ordinary LDL (so-called “bad”) cholesterol is not the primary cause of plaque build-up, any more than calcium.
Massive research now supports the insight of Linus Pauling and Matthias Rath, who well ahead of their time in 1994 pointed out, “If you have more than 20mg/dl of Lp(a) in your blood it begins depositing plaques causing atherosclerosis.”
The Pauling/Rath U. S. Patent # 5,278,189 is for the prevention and treatment of occlusive cardiovascular disease with vitamin C and substances that inhibit the binding of lipoprotein-(a). The patent provides a method for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease, such as atherosclerosis, by administering therapeutically effective dosages of a formula composed of vitamin C, lipoprotein-(a) binding inhibitors (e.g., lysine and proline or their analogs) and antioxidants.
Linus Pauling and Matthias Rath discovered that substances that inhibit the binding of lipoprotein-(a) also cause lipoprotein-(a) to be released from the arterial wall. According to the patent, a binding inhibitor (e.g., lysine or lysine analog) used alone or in conjunction with vitamin C, finds Lp(a) in the blood and binds with it before the molecule can reach the walls of arteries. At high enough concentrations, the lysine in the blood attracts Lp(a) in the existing plaques and will dissolve the plaque.
The inescapable conclusion is that the essential, very low cost and completely nontoxic amino acid lysine, when taken with vitamin C in amounts far larger than one normally consumes in the diet, may reduce or may even eliminate Lp(a) based atherosclerosis in human beings.
The lysine treatment mechanism doesn’t depend on the reason the Lp(a) based plaque forms. It really doesn’t matter whether the arterial lesions were caused by mechanical stress, a vitamin deficiency, oxidized cholesterol, elevated homo-cysteine, fat in the diet, or even little green men.
Debunking the Cholesterol Myths
“. . . a victim of negative press, cholesterol is an essential component of the production of the steroid hormones and in nerve function as well as other essential body processes. First, there is absolutely no evidence anywhere that normal cholesterol floating around in the blood does any harm. In fact, cholesterol is the building block for all your steroid hormones, which includes all the sex hormones and the cortisones. Even slightly low levels of cholesterol are associated with depression, suicide, and lung cancer in older women. . . For most people, eating high cholesterol foods does not raise cholesterol.
Why Does Cholesterol Accumulate in the Arteries?
“Drug company advertising for cholesterol lowering drugs gives the impression that excessive cholesterol in the blood simply deposits on the artery wall, and that lowering cholesterol levels stops that process. . . This is simply not true. High levels of Lp(a) are a healing response to a breakdown of the Collagen that holds arteries together.
What is Collagen?
Collagen is a component of bone and connective tissue and is the most abundant protein in vertebrates. It is organised in water- insoluble fibers of great strength. A Collagen fiber consists of three polypeptide chains wrapped around each other in a ropelike twist, or triple helix. Basically it is what holds us together.
What causes Collagen to break down?
The enzyme that Hydroxylates Proline and Lysine into hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine thus maintaining the normal state of Collagen requires ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) to remain active.
Why do cracks in arteries happen in the heart?
The answer is simple mechanical stress. The heart beats on average 80 times a minute. Now imagine treading on a garden hose 80 times a minute. Eventually it will crack.
Where else do arteries crack?
Another common area is in the Carotid arteries in the neck. Have you ever noticed sudden little pains at the site of the Carotid arteries. Or do you get cramps in the legs while walking uphill because your body can no longer flush away the lactic acid that working muscles give off due to reduced arteries.These are typical signs of blockages and a lack of vitamin C.
At what age do arteries crack?
Autopsies of young Americans who fought in the Korean war showed blockages already forming in the early twenties.
Will lots of fruits and vegetables give me enough vitamin C?
The short answer is no.You will still need to take supplements.
The Myth of the Cholesterol Count
“Another cholesterol myth perpetuated by the drug companies is that everyone with a total cholesterol count over 200 mg/dl should be concerned. This is blatantly false. . .
Drugs do More Harm than Good
“While a cholesterol-lowering drug will usually do a very good job of lowering your cholesterol, there’s scant, if any, evidence that it will help you live longer or reduce your risk of heart attack unless you are extremely ill or have just suffered from a heart attack. . . There are no studies that show women benefit from these drugs — all the studies showing even marginal benefits have been done on men. Nor are there any studies showing that they reduce heart attacks or death in men aged 65 to 75. Since heart disease takes decades to develop, it’s highly unlikely that cholesterol-lowering drugs will help anyone over the age of 75. That leaves men aged 35 to 55, but even here the evidence of benefit is slim, and the possible side effects are huge. . .
“Hundreds of millions of dollars have been spent by the National Institutes of Health, the American Heart Association, and other agencies in support of studies of cardiovascular disease in relation to LDL and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, saturated fats, and unsaturated fats. Very little attention has been paid to vitamin C and other vitamins. I think that these agencies have been betting on the wrong horse.
“It is fortunate that vitamin C is not a drug — it is an orthomolecular substance, normally present in the human body and required for life, and it has extremely low toxicity. You do not need to have a physician’s prescription or the approval of the medical establishment to use it in the best way to improve your health and to prevent heart disease. Your knowledge may even be greater and your judgment better than theirs.” –Linus Pauling, How to Live Longer and Feel Better, 1986
Thanks to the work of Linus Pauling and co-workers we know that 10 grams of vitamin C doubles the life expectancy of cancer patients, and, in some cases effects a complete cure. Its role is even more pivotal in cardiovascular disease, which is now being postulated as the long-term consequence of vitamin C deficiency. Just about every marker of cardiovascular disease, arterial damage, high blood cholesterol levels, low HDL levels, high levels of oxidized cholesterol, thick blood are all improved by adequate vitamin C intake at levels up to 10 grams a day.
Vitamin C increases resistance to stress, lessens allergic reactions, helps arthritic conditions, slows down the aging process and improves energy production. Beneficial effects of vitamin C in human trials tend to increase with the amount given up to, and above, 10 grams per day. On the basis of research into vitamin C’s effect on disease it would appear that an intake of somewhere between 1 and 10 grams may be optimal simply for maintaining optimal function of the immune, endocrine and cardiovascular system.
Whichever way you look at it the figures come out in the same ballpark. The optimum intake is likely to be in the region of 1,000 mg (1 gram) to 10,000 mg (10 grams) per day, If you are in the grips of cardiovascular disease, an infectious or immune system disease, or cancer the ideal level may be much higher. If you drink excessive amounts of alcohol, live in a polluted city, have a stressful lifestyle, take drugs including aspirin, or smoke, your optimal intake will again be raised. An intake of 200 to 300 mg of vitamin C per day is required to raise the average smoker’s vitamin C level to that of a non-smoker. An intake of around 50 mg per cigarette probably affords maximum protection.
Albert Szent Gyorgi, who isolated vitamin C in 1928, recommends 1 gram daily. Dr. Michael Colgan takes 5 grams daily. Dr. Linus Pauling took 10 to 18 grams daily.
The choice is yours.
Pauling therapy Daily Dose to reduce blockages: Vitamin C L-Lysine 3-6 grams (1 gram=1000mg)
Continuation of this work has shown the addition of L-Proline 0.5 – 1.5 gram/day will speed up the repair process.
Ultimate Daily formula by proportion for Heart health Vitamin C 3000mg; L-Lysine 1500mg; L-proline 250mg; L-Carnitine 250mg; Vitamin E 500 IU; Vitamin A 8,500 IU; Co-Enzyme Q-10 10mg
Dr. Robert Cathcart, III, MD, has treated over 20,000 patients with high doses of ascorbic acid (vitamin C.) Dr. Cathcart reports that he hasn’t seen a single case of heart disease develop in patients who hadn’t already had a bad heart to begin with!
VITAMIN C – Properties
Vitamin C is likely the most supplemented of all vitamins & for good reason.
Vitamin C : Is an antioxidant; Aids wound healing; Maintains your adrenal cortex & ovaries; Detoxifies heavy metals, pesticides, & other pollutants; Participates in the metabolism of tryptophan, tyrosine & phenylalanine to neurotransmitters & other essential substances; Acts in the synthesis of collagen, cartilage, bone, & teeth; Strengthens capillaries & other blood vessels & controls bleeding; Aids iron absorption; Stimulates white blood cell immune activity & partially protective against colds & flu & all infections; Maintain cellular oxygen turnover & cell membranes; Stimulates interferon (an immune system soldier).
Vitamin C Protects against: Cataracts, Arthritis, Allergies, Inflammatory disorders, Depression, Adrenal insufficiency,
Radiation, Air pollution, Periodontal disease, The risk of death from all causes, Sun damage to your skin, Cancer, Alcoholism, Mental illness,
Vitamin C fulfills progressively broader functions at progressively higher levels of intake.
Special conditions requiring higher supplementation are:
Pregnancy & breast feeding; Heavy metal toxicity; Stress/anxiety;
Trauma; Surgery; Allergies; Old age; High protein diet; Infections;
Burns; Other toxic exposures.
SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIENCY: Depression; Weakness; Listlessness; Fatigue; Confusion; Irritability; Allergies; Easy bruising; Bleeding gums;
Nosebleeds; Poor wound healing; Low resistance to infection; Decreased connective tissue integrity; Heart & blood vessel disease;
Bone abnormalities; Raised dry papules on buttocks & calves; Aching joints/arthritis; Rough skin; Dental cavities; Loose teeth; Poor digestion
LINUS PAULING 1901 – 1994
2 times recipient of the Nobel Prize. Scientist, Chemist, Medical Researcher. Chrystallographer, Physicist, Molecular Biologist. He was awarded nearly 40 Honorary degrees, PHD’s and DSc’s.
After he published his first book on Vitamin C in 1970 the sales of Vitamin C in the U.S.A. went up 300% over the same period a reduction in Heart Disease of 30% occurred.
140,000 people die each year in the USA from adverse reaction to prescription medicines.(DOCTORS PRESCRIBE MEDICINES) There is not one reported case of a death from Vitamin C overdose.
Today the R.D.A (recommended daily allowance) of Vitamin C is 60mg. Who would you rather believe. A man who started taking 18,000 mg of Vitamin C* a day at the age of 63 and lived for another 30 years in excellent health or drug company propaganda which has a pill ready to maintain your illness at its present level until you die? However short that may be.
* Persons sensitive to regular vitamin C (ascorbic acid) may take buffered C. It is available as calcium ascorbate or sometimes as magnesium ascorbate. AscorBATE is non-acidic vitamin C. Some buffered vitamin C is just ascorbic acid mixed with some ground up dolomite (a natural calcium-rich rock). This is usually cheaper, but one teaspoon may provide only 2,000 milligrams (mg) of vitamin C. One teaspoon of calcium ascorbate may provide 4,000 mg of C.
Because you tend to get what you pay for, always read the label. (http://www.doctoryourself.com/tabtaking.html)
Persons with sensitivity to citrus fruits, tomatoes or cranberries may feel more comfortable taking vitamin C as ascorbate, a non-acidic vitamin C. Calcium ascorbate is most frequently chosen and sodium ascorbate the least, except for injection. As with all vitamins you should build up the dosage gradually over a number of days and taper off the same way. You should never just skip days . Take Vitamin C TO BOWEL TOLERENCE then transition down to a maintenance level (about 60 mg/kg/day) should be made gradually, over a period of a week or two. A kilogram is 2.2 pounds. (http://www.doctoryourself.com/klenner_table.html)
The summation on this page is the result of 2 years research by me on heart disease and is not meant to replace advice from your doctor but has been put together to help fellow heart patients take control of their illness. Should you require any further clarification about the Linus Pauling/Rath therapy or wish to view the Linus Pauling video or talk to me personally then use my e-mail link to get in touch.
HIGHLY RECOMMENDED WEBSITES FOR MORE INFORMATION ON HEALTH:
More details on Linus Pauling therapy: http://www.paulingtherapy.com
Home page of Dr Matthias Rath: http://www.drrath.com
Excellent referenced site covering most illnesses: http://www.doctoryourself.com
Vitamin C foundation: http://www.vitaminCfoundation.org
For drug interactions, go to: http://www.drugdigest.org
How to Live Longer and Feel Better, Linus Pauling, W. H. Freeman and Company, 1986, ISBN 0-380-70289-4
Eradicating Heart Disease, Matthias Rath, Health Now, 1993, ISBN 0-9638768-0-5
Protein Power, Michael R. Eades and Mary Dan Eades, Bantam Book, 1996, ISBN 0-553-10183-8
Prescription Alternatives, Earl Mindell and Virginia Hopkins, Keats Publishing, 1998, ISBN 0-87983-790-X
Nutrition Against Disease, Roger J. Williams, Bantam Book, 1971
The Healing Factor: Vitamin C Against Disease: Irwin Stone, 1976, Dunlap Books
The Vitamin C Connection, Emanuel Cheraskin, W. Marshall Ringsdorf, Jr. and Emily L. Sisley, Harper & Row, 1983, ISBN 0-06-038024-1
Cancer and Vitamin C, Ewan Cameron and Linus Pauling, Camino Books, 1979&1993, ISBN 0-940159-21-X